Directional management of interface defects achieved in perovskite solar cells

Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials have excellent optical capture capacity and carrier conductivity. Perovskite solar cells, with amazing power conversion efficiency, show great application prospects. However, a large number of unfavorable defects, growing up after or during annealing process due to their ionic nature, would lead to sites of nonradiative recombination and accelerate degradation of device efficiency and stability.

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